The leading cause of death in the US according to the Center for Disease Control ( is cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for heart disease are smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, lack of exercise, stress, and obesity. Factors which are unavoidable are age, sex, hereditary and diabetes. Death is most likely to occur after 10 minutes of a loss of oxygen to the brain. From 6 to 10 minutes brain damage is expected. From 4 to 6 minutes brain damage is very possible and from 0 to 4 minutes brain damage is virtually non-existent. However, CPR should still be performed.

CPR for 2 Rescuers
Compression-ventilation ratio without advanced airway For Adults and Adolescents: compression over breathing 30:2 and for Children and Infants: 15:2.

Compression-ventilation ratio with advanced airway For Adults, Adolescents, Children, and Infants: Continuous compressions at a rate of 100-120/min while providing one breath every 6 seconds.

When to stop CPR
If the patient regains a pulse, if the area becomes unsafe, if cardiac arrest last longer than 30 minutes, if the rescuer(s) is too exhausted or ordered to stop. Or, if these complications arise: Fractures, punctures, lung ruptures or collapses, rib separation, bruises of the heart or lungs.

For patients in cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm, it is reasonable to administer epinephrine as soon as feasible.

Bloodborne Pathogens to be aware of:
Hepatitis B and C (HBV / HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB).

Coronavirus CPR Guidelines

Coronavirus CPR Guidelines:

Healthcare providers are the profession at the highest risk for contracting COVID-19. Many work in close contact with patients suspected or confirmed to have the disease. To improve their safety and limit their exposure, updates have been made to existing CPR recommendations. These include limiting personnel attending to a patient, encouraging bystander CPR, and emphasizing providing at least hands-only CPR.

First responders are advised to put on PPE before entering the scene. CPR should consist of cycles of thirty compressions and two rescue breaths. When giving rescue breaths, a bag-mask that has a tight seal and filter should be used. Alternatively, continuous chest compressions with passive oxygenation can be provided whilst wearing a protective medical mask. Mechanical CPR devices can be used for patients who meet the height and weight requirements to reduce aerosolization risk.

For adult victims, it is recommended to provide at least hands-only CPR after a cardiac arrest is known to have occurred. The healthcare provider and/or victim should wear a face mask to reduce the risk of contagion for the safety of both, as well as any none-household bystanders.

For children, chest compressions should be performed and mouth-to-mouth ventilation may be considered. Again, mask-wearing is advised for both the healthcare provider and/or victim.

What is Personal Protective Equipment?

PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) keeps you safe from blood, hazardous materials, and OPIM. PPE includes:

  • Face shields
  • CPR shields
  • Gloves
  • Goggles
  • Gowns
  • Masks

All Personal Protective Equipment promotes safety by creating a barrier between you and the infection/hazardous materials. Before arriving at the scene of the accident, you must assess the situation to determine the risks and to use the proper PPE.

PPE examples include CPR shields provide protection against exposure when performing CPR. Face shields provide splash and high impact protection, while gloves protect against exposure from skin contact with chemicals, infectious agents, cold, heat, and cutting objects. For proper protection, be sure to use the correct hand.

Goggles are designed to reduce the risk of exposure to laser radiation, chemical splashes, or flying debris. Gowns are used to prevent the penetration of infectious blood, hazardous materials, or other OPIM. Masks are used to protect the employee from airborne materials or liquid contaminating the face.